Tuesday, April 16, 2013

50th Anniversary of "Letter from Birmingham City Jail"

On this date 50 years ago, Martin Luther King, Jr. penned one of his greatest writings, the "Letter from Birmingham City Jail." Not only did this letter help shift more support within southern Black communities toward the movement, it also represented an important shift toward more persistent and determined forms of non-violent resistance. As a primary source document, it should be included in any curriculum on the modern civil rights movement.

As a history teacher, I have always found it difficult to read through the letter without being overwhelmed with emotion. King's eloquence expressed the necessary combination of poignancy, urgency, and honesty. He evokes the sense of struggle and injustice best in the following lines:

"We have waited for more than 340 years for our constitutional and God given rights. The nations of Asia and Africa are moving with jetlike speed toward gaining political independence, but we still creep at horse and buggy pace toward gaining a cup of coffee at a lunch counter. Perhaps it is easy for those who have never felt the stinging darts of segregation to say, 'Wait.' But when you have seen vicious mobs lynch your mothers and fathers at will and drown your sisters and brothers at whim; when you have seen hate filled policemen curse, kick and even kill your black brothers and sisters; when you see the vast majority of your twenty million Negro brothers smothering in an airtight cage of poverty in the midst of an affluent society; when you suddenly find your tongue twisted and your speech stammering as you seek to explain to your six year old daughter why she can't go to the public amusement park that has just been advertised on television, and see tears welling up in her eyes when she is told that Funtown is closed to colored children, and see ominous clouds of inferiority beginning to form in her little mental sky, and see her beginning to distort her personality by developing an unconscious bitterness toward white people; when you have to concoct an answer for a five year old son who is asking: 'Daddy, why do white people treat colored people so mean?'; when you take a cross county drive and find it necessary to sleep night after night in the uncomfortable corners of your automobile because no motel will accept you; when you are humiliated day in and day out by nagging signs reading 'white' and 'colored'; when your first name becomes 'nigger,' your middle name becomes 'boy' (however old you are) and your last name becomes 'John,' and your wife and mother are never given the respected title 'Mrs.'; when you are harried by day and haunted by night by the fact that you are a Negro, living constantly at tiptoe stance, never quite knowing what to expect next, and are plagued with inner fears and outer resentments; when you are forever fighting a degenerating sense of 'nobodiness'then you will understand why we find it difficult to wait. There comes a time when the cup of endurance runs over, and men are no longer willing to be plunged into the abyss of despair. I hope, sirs, you can understand our legitimate and unavoidable impatience."

I encourage you to read the full text included on the website of the African Studies Center of the University of Pennsylvania.

Resource Link: www.africa.upenn.edu/Articles_Gen/Letter_Birmingham.html

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